Skip to Main Content
Page banner

Landscape Finance Lab

Idea note submitted
The landscape team is currently working on the following activities in this stage:  Forming a DEVELOP stage team and MoU The partners group formalizes the partnership through an operational design team for the develop stage and a signs MoU clarifying roles for design and implementation Program development Specific studies (detailed feasibility studies, economic analyses...) or pilot activities may be carried out and reviewed to be incorporated in the  program  document Program design document  The Landscape partnership team submits a full program design document to one of the relevant funds or investor (LDNF, GCF, FCPF)
Thanks for your vote
This voting milestone has now ended, and the idea has progressed to a private milestone
Return to idea list
Thanks for approving the idea
This milestone has now ended, and the idea has progressed to a private milestone
Return to idea list

Southern Kenya-Northern Tanzania (SOKNOT) Integrated Transboundary Conservation Corridor Programme

by LouisaDenier | Feb 19, 2019 | in Landscape Incubator | DFCD

The SOKNOT programme offers the opportunity to strengthen and better connect eight National Parks / Reserves and 32 community managed conservation areas within a ~ 136,189 km2 landscape along the Kenya-Tanzania border; this landscape hosts over 60% and over 28% of the elephant and lion populations in Kenya and  Tanzania, respectively, supports the livelihood needs of local communities, and contributes significantly to sustainable regional economic growth.

Landscape description

The Southern Kenya-Northern Tanzania (SOKNOT) Transboundary Programme includes eight National Parks and 32 community managed conservation areas within ~136,189 km2 along the Kenya-Tanzania border – the area also includes important, but unprotected, wildlife corridors and dispersal areas. Within SOKNOT are three transboundary sub-landscapes namely: Serengeti-Mara, Amboseli-West Kilimanjaro and Tsavo-Mkomazi.

The SOKNOT landscape is one of Africa’s most valuable and globally significant conservation landscapes that support tens of thousands of local livelihoods and contribute significantly to sustainable national and regional economic growth. The landscape hosts the annual wildebeest migration, ~15,000 elephants, 300 black rhino, ~3,000 lion and several packs of wild dogs among other globally threatened species. It contains Kenya’s largest water tower (the Mau forest complex) and several sites of global significance such as a UNESCO world heritage sites (Serengeti/Mt Kilimanjaro); a RAMSAR site (Lake Natron); an International Biosphere Reserve (Amboseli); Important Bird Area’s (Lake Natron, Loita, Amboseli, West Kilimanjaro). The SOKNOT landscape makes a vital contribution towards the ~$3.2 billion income generated nationally through tourism in both countries and which also provides ~3 million jobs and $10 million income from community managed conservation areas that go directly to improve communities’ livelihood. Approximately 1 to 1.5 million tourists are attracted to the landscape’s network of National Parks, Reserves and community managed conservation areas each year. Estimated visitor numbers / year are ~120,000 (Amboseli), ~50,000 (Kilimanjaro) ~350,000 (Serengeti), ~300,000 (Masai Mara), ~120,000 (Tsavo) and ~3,000 (Mkomazi), with annual gate receipts for the Masai Mara National Reserve being worth $54 million. Although as yet unquantified/ estimated the economic value of eco-system services within the SOKNOT landscape is worth billions of USD$. A WWF supported natural capital scoping study in the county of Narok, Kenya within the Mara sub-landscape estimated the cost of replacing ecosystem services provided at $1.26 billion / year.

Despite its regional and global significance, SOKNOT is under threat from severe fragmentation and degradation - threatening ecosystem function, wildlife population viability, and the ecosystem services that support millions of people. The long-term viability of many wildlife species relies on maintaining connectivity between the network of protected areas and other critical habitats. However, the erosion of this connectivity across the landscape is reducing the ability of wildlife to disperse and migrate to access favourable habitats and adapt to the changing climate. The loss of natural resources will also significantly impact on the communities who depend on them for their survival and reduce their opportunities to seek benefits from them now and in the future.

Other threats include large-scale infrastructure development such as railways, highways, dams, and mines that are resulting in habitat loss and blocking key dispersal and migratory routes for wildlife.  Recent changes in land tenure system supporting the privatization and subdivision of community land into individual plots and fencing of these land parcels is further blocking wildlife movement between protected areas and key habitat areas. Thus, owing to its ecological and socio-economic importance, it is critical that this transboundary landscape is managed using an integrated approach for nature and humanity.


Contact organisation

Local landscape lead

Main partners

National Government – Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife (Kenya)  and Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (Tanzania)

County Government

Local and international NGOs working in the landscape – IFAW, BORNFREE, Sheldricks, Biglife, ACC, SORALO, TNC, FZS, Honey Guide, GAWPT, AWF, OIKOS, Birdlife International, etc.

Grants from development partners

Private Sector through bankable projects

Total area (ha)

13,618,900 ha - terrestrial.

Overall goal

By 2030, existing protected areas and additional key wildlife dispersal areas and priority wildlife corridors are under effective conservation in the SOKNOT landscape, supporting (i) the connectivity, integrity and recovery of key habitats and species, and (ii) the sustainable livelihoods and well-being of people living within those wildlife areas.

Expected impacts


Zero poaching in areas under protection within the SOKNOT landscape

Increases in key species populations: elephant by 5% annually; black rhino by 5% annually; lion 5%; wild dogs from 5%. 

Annual Serengeti-Mara migration secured

Species connectivity secured– lion, elephant, wild dog, wildebeest

Habitat connectivity:

10% of unprotected area (dispersal area and corridor in SOKNOT) newly placed under conservation co-management

Connectivity between PAs is demonstrably increased.

PA and community managed conservation area management:

Year on year increase in METT scores for monitored PAs


5% increase in forest cover by 2030

50% decrease in cases of illegal logging / cutting in PAs


At least 10% of total grassland area in SOKNOT landscape under holistic rangeland management


Improved e-flow / seasonal flows of the Mara river through riparian land restoration


Demonstrable improvements in well-being for at least 20% of households in / around priority wildlife dispersal areas and corridors

HWC reduced by 60% by 2025

Number of jobs created for local community members (measured through well-being index – target 20%)

Local livelihood enhancement and improved markets for local community members (measured through well-being index – target 20%)


At least 50% of all infrastructure development projects follow international best practice and are better planned and implemented reducing their environmental and social impact


At least 2 bankable projects are underway attracting at least USD$150M in investment

At least 2 new investors secured by 2025

At least 200M USD$ secured for 10 years for the SOKNOT landscape programme

Climate change:

Co2 reduction (REDD Project in Kasigau and Taita ranches)


Landscape approach

PES programs

Jurisdictional  / landscape REDD+

Integrated water resources management

Ecosystem / forest restoration landscapes

Species landscapes (elephant, lion, rhino)

Transboundary natural resources management

Catchment/basin management

Climate smart agricultural landscapes


Sisal, Aloe Vera, Livestock

Related Sector

• Livestock

• Conservation

• Energy

• Forestry

• Infrastructure

• Tourism

• Transport

• Water

• Agriculture

Global brands present

Lead institution

Name of key contact: Dr. Yussuf Adan Wato

Position of key contact: Wildlife Programme Manager - Kenya

Contact organisations: WWF Kenya and WWF Tanzania


> 200 M USD

Current sources of funding

Expected sources of funding

Potential funds:

  • Government – Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife (Kenya) Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism (Tanzania)
  • Partners (There are many local and international NGOs working in the landscape – IFAW, BORNFREE, Daphne Sheldricks Foundation, Biglife Foundation, ACC, SORALO, TNC,  OIKOS, Honey Guide, Birdlife Foundation, Nature Tanzania, FZS, GAWPT, AWF, etc)
  • County and District Council Governments
  • Grants from development partners
  • Private Sector through bankable projects – Tourism, livestock enterprises, Sustainable Agriculture
  • Major public sector proposal – GCF, GEF
  • Major individual donors, foundations and trusts
  • WWF partner / network offices
  • Regional bodies – EAC

Proposed priority programs or sectors


Support needed

Input on concept and proposal development

Capacity building

Advice on establishing effective multi-stakeholder platforms

Identification of bankable projects

Helping prepare an investment plan and identify investors.

edited on 6th October 2020, 13:10 by Deesha Chandra

Attach files


Deesha Chandra Mar 5, 2019

Status label added: New submission

Reply 0

Dieke Geerling May 3, 2019

Hello, my name is Dieke Geerling and I am director of Osotua Foundation. Together with the Maasai we are working on a sustainable land use management system which regenarates the ecosystem by using conservation agriculture putting wildlife, livestock and alternative incomes for Maasai in the centre. It includes holistic grazing management, improving homesteads and regenerate watersystems through permacultural principles and setting up a short bio-organic value chain to sell the products of the Maasai and create acces to the market. this could be an interesting approach?

Reply 0

Deesha Chandra Jun 6, 2019

Status label removed: New submission

Reply 0

Deesha Chandra Apr 8, 2020

The idea has been progressed to the next milestone.

Reply 0

Deesha Chandra 5 months ago

The idea has been progressed to the next milestone.

Reply 0